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Small Scale and Sustainable Household Wastewater Recycling (S3HWR)

Primary Information


Sustainable Habitat

Project No.


Sanction and Project Initiation

Sanction No: F.No.3-18/2015-TS-TS.I

Sanction Date: 29/11/2016

Project Initiation date: 42738

Project Duration: 36

Partner Ministry/Agency/Industry

Ministry of Urban Development


Role of partner:CST-IISc Coordinates and establishes a low energy GreyWater (GW) treatment system using 2 options, Anaerobic a.biofilm (AnBF) and b.sequencing batch (AnSBR) reactors for 0.25 and 2.5kL/d (KLD) facilitating SOCIO-CULTURALLY acceptable, in-family treated greywater for household (HH) level recycle reducing urban/peri-urban water footprints. Partners IITKgp (electrogenic microbial cell, EMC), BITS (constructed wetland, CW), NITK (solar photo-catalysis, SPC), CST-cold plasma Ozonation (CPO) and try these additions to polish treated GW to <5BOD water, <10NTU water for recycling. Partners will also adapt the overall system to local geography, demography and economic capabilities.


Support from partner:IISc: develops 2 types of Greywater Treatment train of a-4Chambered AnBFR and b.AnSBR IISc-Tertiary reactor with cold plasma discharge IITKGP-Tertiary reactor with Electrogenic Cell BITSGoa: Tertiary reactor using constructed wetland NITK - Tertiary reactor using solar photocatalysis All partners - performance evaluation is system integration.

Principal Investigator

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Hoysala N ChanakyaPrimary
Indian Institute Of Science, Bengaluru

Host Institute


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Makarand M. Ghangrekar
Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur

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Srikanth Mutnuri
Birla Institute of Technology and Science-Pilani, Goa campus

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National Institute of Technology-Karnataka, Surathkal

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Lakshmi Narayana Rao
Indian Institute of Science Bangalore


Scope and Objectives

Evolve, validate, design and field test a 100&250L capacity household low power greywater recycling system capable of 3 year uninterrupted functionality using AnBFR/AnSBR primary and 4 other secondary treatment systems that will also address futures problematic compounds such as xenobiotics, anti-microbials, surfactants, endocrine disruptors (XASED) even at small scale and enable modern lifestyles even at 55LPCD through greywater recycling.


Functional prototypes demonstrated at 110/250LPCD scale under typical household level operation. Demonstration /assessing functionality of removal of typical XASEDs by one of 4 polishing systems. Meet projected treated water specifications of <10NTU, <10BOD, evolving tolerance and possible removal of marker XASEDs fed at anticipated levels. Proof of Concept /Function /acceptance. Functioning at <25W connected loads for >3yr uninterrupted operation.


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Scientific Output

AnBFR - Anaerobic biofilm reactor for greywater - overcomes low F/M ratio of Greywater and retains sludge (very low) under endogenous decay regime to offer 3 years MTBF. A similar approach is tried with AnSBR. These two reactors breakdown most organic matter without too much suspended bacterial mass leaving very little to be "clarified" and "oxidized" (detergents, antimicrobials and PCPPs) by the 4 tertiary treatments indicated above. We recover over 95% greywater with <10NTU, and (mg/L) BOD<10; N<10, P<3, XASEDs/PCPPs <2; making this water clean and reusable at homes without obviating cultural and technological barriers.


Results and outcome till date

100-200L prototypes run as per plan with AnBFR achieving <10NTU, <5BOD for >1 year showing success of process and prototypes. 2-250L prototypes operated under similar conditions at CST&NITK. Three locations identified and accepted for pilot trials in user households (HH). Beta versions being fabricated in MS/SS by local industry. Partner trials for polishing systems functional for 3-15 months and show compatibility. Design simplification and near complete automation of operation.


Societal benefit and impact anticipated

As freshwater availability shrinks we need to recycle water at household level without compromising lifestyles. Using 150lpcd will soon require Rs15/person for water alone not to mention lack of availability itself. Recycling greywater at HH can bring down daily water requirement to about 50lpcd and enabling living even solely on rainwater itself. This projects provides the technology and attempts to initiate such a demo device. Secondly, it attempts to solve an even more complex problem of loss of water quality since we use many personal care and pharma products (PCPPs) rendering normal treatment defunct. Greywater treatment systems developed here will address this and enable peri-urban and urban HH to live with as little as 50lpcd in the future.

Next steps

Demo devices built here for reliability and ruggedness need to be made 'manufacturable' across the country by using market available parts and minimizing specialized components so as to quickly become deployable. Some, adaptation research will be needed.

Publications and reports

under process


Under way

Scholars and Project Staff

Dr. Himanshu Khuntia (Sep 2018) Dr Sreesha Malayil (mar 2019) Swapnil Punyapwar (SRF) Sushmita MB (Dec 2018) Kavyashree (Mar 2019) Naveen JAnardhan (Till Mar 2019) Sushmita MB (Till Dec 2018) Rohan Sharma (Till OCt 2018) Sindhu P (till Mar 2019) Subhrajit Mukherjee (till Dec 2017) Melad Shaikh (till Apr 2018) Niranjit Khuman (Mar 2019) Chhanda Jana (Mar 2019)

Challenges faced

Perfecting electronic controls, finding rugged sensors Design for simplicity of manufacture & corrosion proofing Identifying suitable households with dual plumbing (separate grey & black water) for device installation /testing

Other information

We show a way to live elegantly and sustainably without compromising developed lifestyles even with <55 LPCD in urban India and recycling water @<50W connected load and halve the fresh water demand in upcoming urban areas.

Financial Information

  • Total sanction: Rs. 24200000.00

  • Amount received: Rs. 12520000.00

  • Amount utilised for Equipment: Rs. 555447.00

  • Amount utilised for Manpower: Rs. 4389170.00

  • Amount utilised for Consumables: Rs. 229817.00

  • Amount utilised for Contingency: Rs. 40439.00

  • Amount utilised for Travel: Rs. 129847.00

  • Amount utilised for Other Expenses: 1977064.00

  • Amount utilised for Overheads: Rs. 1411000.00

Equipment and facilities


Pilot /demo /proof of concept plants at IISc and partners


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