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Development of Artificial Pancreas for Closed Loop Blood Glucose Control of Type-1 Diabetic Patients in India

Primary Information



Project No.


Sanction and Project Initiation

Sanction No: FNo.3-18/2015-TS-TS.1

Sanction Date: 29/11/2016

Project Initiation date: 01/03/2017

Project Duration: 36

Partner Ministry/Agency/Industry

Indian Council of Medical Research


Role of partner:Coordination and promotion of biomedical research


Support from partner:

Principal Investigator

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Prof. Radhakant Padhi
Associate Faculty, Center for Bio-Systems Science and Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore

Host Institute


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Prof. K. V. S. Hari
Associate Faculty, Center for Bio-Systems Science and Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore

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Dr. Mala Dharmalingam
Dept. of Endocrinology, MSR Medical College & Hospital, Bangalore

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Dr. Pramila Kalra
Dept. of Endocrinology, MSR Medical College & Hospital, Bangalore

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Dr. Manish Arora
Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore

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Dr. Mala Dharmalingam
MSR Medical College & Hospital, Bangalore


Scope and Objectives

The overall objective is to develop an effective artificial pancreas system for Type-1 diabetic patients, especially for the Indian population.


The aim of this project is to develop two effective artificial pancreas prototypes for Type-1 diabetic patients, especially aimed at the Indian patients. In the first option, the system will consist of commercially available continuous glucose monitoring sensor and insulin pump, where the communication will happen via a cellular phone. The control algorithm will be embedded in the cellular phone by developing a specific App. As a parallel alternative, an insulin pump will also be developed indigenously, which will directly communicate with the continuous glucose monitoring sensor. In both options, a smart control algorithm based on advanced predictive and feedback control theory will be embedded to compute the required insulin dosage. The algorithm will use an Indian patient-specific model and hence both options are expected to perform better for Indian T1DM patients as compared to other such systems


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Scientific Output

1) Collecting data about the glucose sensitivity in Type-1 diabetic patients in India using ethically and scientifically approved medical procedures. (2) Using this population-specific data to develop a suitable mathematical model. (3) Using this mathematical model to determine the insulin requirement based on advanced control theory. (4) Developing an embedded platform using medically certified continuous glucose monitoring sensors and the insulin pump with a cellular phone in the loop. (6) Indigenously designing and developing an insulin pump in parallel and integrating it using sensors. (7) Conducting supervised trials on subjects to prove the efficacy of control algorithms and indigenously developed insulin pump.


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Results and outcome till date

1) Glucose sensitivity tests on Indian T1DM patients have started and the corresponding data is being collected successfully. 2) The physiological parameters are being estimated successfully using various well established mathematical techniques. 3) We have developed an Android app which receives the data from CGMS through a device known as LimiTTer. 4) The indigenously developed Mark-1 prototype insulin pump was developed and tested in the first phase. In the second stage, various design modification has been identified and are being implemented.


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Societal benefit and impact anticipated

1) Insulin pumps available in the market are very costly and are not affordable to the common public. The prototype which we are developing will be low cost and durable. 2) The automatic insulin delivery will be customized specifically for the Indian T1DM subjects. 3) In the conventionally available insulin pump in the market, the T1DM patient has to manually adjust many settings thus departing from closed blood glucose control concept. Our artificial pancreas system will be designed to have a minimal human intervention.

Next steps

1) Development and implementation of advanced closed-loop feedback control ideas. 2) Embedding the control and estimation logic into the cellular phone and addressing communication and security of data transmission issues. 3) Design and development of the indigenous Mark-2 prototype of the insulin pump, including identifying the controller hardware, porting of the control algorithm on the embedded platform, user interface software coding, and communication protocol between the pump and the CGM sensor.

Publications and reports

1) Shivanagouda Biradar, Archana Balan, Radhakant Padhi, Mala Dharmalingam, "Modified Bergmann minimal model for glucose-insulin dynamics and estimation of model parameters for the Indian population", 12th conference on Advanced technologies and treatment for diabetes, Berlin, Germany. 2) Shivanagouda Biradar, Archana Balan, Radhakant Padhi, Mala Dharmalingam, Jitendra Raol, "Quantitative estimation and comparison of physiological parameters in healthy Indian and Caucasian population.", 2nd International Diabetes summit, Pune. 3) Anirudh Nath, Shivanagouda Biradar, Archana Balan, Rajeeb Dey, Radhakant Padhi, "Physiological Models and Control for Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus: A Brief Review," 5th IFAC Conference on Advances in Control and Optimization of Dynamical Systems ACODS 2018.


Will be applied soon.

Scholars and Project Staff

PhD Scholar: Shridhar B Velhal 1) Rohith S Nambiar Project Associate 01 Aug 18 to 31 Jan 18 2) Deval Karia Project Associate 01 Aug 18 to 31 Jan 18 3) Shivanagouda Biradar Project Associate 03 Jul 17 to 30 Oct 18 4) Sri Charani N Secretarial Staff 03 Nov 17 to 01 Dec 18

Challenges faced

1) Identifying and retaining motivated manpower 2) Installment-2 has not been released by ICMR yet

Other information


Financial Information

  • Total sanction: Rs. 39600000

  • Amount received: Rs. 19428000

  • Amount utilised for Equipment: Rs. 465334

  • Amount utilised for Manpower: Rs. 1696927

  • Amount utilised for Consumables: Rs. 180122

  • Amount utilised for Contingency: Rs. 374767

  • Amount utilised for Travel: Rs. 169086

  • Amount utilised for Other Expenses: 5160000

  • Amount utilised for Overheads: Rs. 2154000

Equipment and facilities


DESCRIPTION DATE OF PURCHASE COST KASPERSKY 17-11-2017 62304 ENDPOINT SECURITY UVA DISTRIBUTION 24-11-2017 50445 SIMULATOR 726-SIGNAL BOOSTER 14-02-2018 38232 726 - SARTORIUS 17-01-2018 50705 ELECTRONIC BALANCE 728 - WATER BATH 31-01-2018 23600 751-CPU-IBALL 20-02-2018 36450 751-LENOVO 18/05/2018 33208 MOBILE 751 - INSIZE DIGITAL 23/05/2018 66670 FORCE GUAGE 718/RILEY LINK 14/08/2018 15930 726-OPTO 19/11/2018 87790 MECHANICS KIT TOTAL 465334

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