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Measures for Improving the Attractiveness of Pedestrian Facility Accessing Urban Local Bus Stops

Primary Information

Domain

Sustainable Habitat

Project No.

7094

Sanction and Project Initiation

Sanction No: Z-16025/2/2010-CPHEEO

Sanction Date: 03/05/2017

Project Initiation date: 18/07/2017

Project Duration: 36

Partner Ministry/Agency/Industry

Partner Ministry Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs, Govt. of India. Formerly Ministry of Urban Development, Govt. of India Industry Partner Bhubaneswar Development Authority (BDA), Bhubaneswar

 

Role of partner:The Bhubaneswar Development Authority (BDA) have expressed their willingness (through letter vide # 27310/BDA, Bhubaneswar dated. 29th Sep, 2016) to implement the outcome of the project on a pilot scale basis.

 

Support from partner:

Principal Investigator

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Debasis Basu
Indian Institute of Technology Bhubaneswar

Host Institute

 

Scope and Objectives

Objective: The broad objective of the work is to address policy measures for rational improvement of pedestrian facility in a catchment area of an urban local bus stop. The work will identify a set of intervention areas by considering all pertinent domains like engineering, technological, management and knowledge-base. The study is likely to come out with a demonstrable improvement proposal for a typical mid-sized urban environment. Scopes: The scopes of the work may be enumerated as follows 1. Identifying intervention areas in terms of engineering, technological, management and knowledge-based for improving pedestrian access-infrastructure in a bus stop catchment area. 2. Identifying and prioritizing areas of intervention for improvement of an urban local bus stop 3. Willingness-to-Pay (WTP) estimation for improvement of various parameters for pedestrian infrastructure considering both quantitative and qualitative parameters. 4. Studying the effect of various excitement parameters on WTP. 5. Sensitivity analysis due to improvement of various alternative measures on the perceived utility of bus commuters in a bus stop catchment. 6. Evaluation of perceived benefit, if any, under various scenarios of infrastructural development.

Deliverables

The following two types of deliverable will be made -
1. A general guideline will be prepared for improving attractiveness of pedestrian access-facility in a bus stop catchment area.
2. A case specific demonstrable measure around a bus stop catchment on a major bus corridor will be prepared for implementation on a pilot scale basis.

 

Scientific Output

Identifying Intervention Areas for Improvement of Pedestrian-Access Path in a Bus Stop Catchment Area A comprehensive field experimentation followed by a data analysis in laboratory was carried out to identify the major areas of intervention for improvement of pedestrian access paths in a bus stop catchment. The field experiments were carried out on several bus stop catchment areas on a major bus service corridor in Bhubaneswar during weekdays. Over the course of the experimentation, about 1355 bus commuters were intercepted for participation, but about 1200 bus commuters were only agreed to participate in the field experimentation. The primary data (perception data from bus commuters) was investigated in laboratory by employing a two-dimensional analyzing tool called Revised Importance Performance (R-IPA) analysis. The R-IPA is an integration of the Importance and Performance Analysis (IPA) and the three factor theory of user satisfaction (as illustrated in Fig.1). The analysis identifies the factor structure and the management scheme of all attributes considered in the study by employing a Fuzzy C-means clustering algorithm (Fig.2). In order to identify priority areas of intervention, the management scheme (Fig.3) of these attributes is compared with the factor structure (Fig.4). The analysis reveals that attributes coming under the factor structure called Basic Factor and management scheme called Concentrate Here have the highest priority (Fig.5) for intervention. The attributes under the aforementioned category are found to be presence of dedicated sidewalk facility, adequate width of sidewalk, presence of street lights on access paths. Apart from all these, the quality of road surface, presence of road surveillance system are also other major attributes under factor structures Basic Factor and Next Priority, which need to be considered for immediate intervention. The above analysis also identified bus service attributes such as frequency of bus service and in-vehicle journey time by bus, which require attention along with above pedestrian- access path related attributes for overall improvement of attractiveness. The Key-performance attributes coming under the management scheme called Concentrate Here such as frequency of crosswalks and bus fare are also need to be intervened. Investigating the Requirement of Infrastructure Facilities at Bus Stop as per Bus Commuters Expectation A rational assessment towards identification of infrastructural improvement requirements for local bus stops in Bhubaneswar city have been carried out. In this regard, an extensive field experimentation was carried out at all 55 major and semi major bus stop locations across the city (Fig.6). In order to record the commuters perception regarding importance and satisfaction towards an array of 37 survey attributes describing infrastructural facilities of a typical bus stop. Around 1700 bus commuters were randomly intercepted for face-to-face interview out of which about 1070 perception data samples were finally selected for analysis in the laboratory. In order to identify the infrastructural requirements, the key-factors of an urban bus stop infrastructure are determined first using Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA), and then an assessment of them is carried out by ordering as per their improvement needs using a ranking method called Relative to an Identified Distribution Integral Transformation (RIDIT) method. While achieving this, the key-factors are determined using the stated importance ratings as given by bus commuters; and then those key-factors are ordered using the stated satisfaction ratings as given by the same bus commuters. In addition to this, a Revised Importance Performance Analysis (R-IPA) has also been carried out on the attributes. The results from the attribute loadings of the key-factors (as obtained from EFA), the ordering of key-factors (as obtained from RIDIT analysis) and the observations from R-IPA have been compared in order to prepare final policy framework and identifying intervention areas for improvement (Fig.7). The analyses indicate bus commuters have expressed their concern on material of seating facility. Apart from this, presence of bus stop amenities such as drinking water facility and public kiosk nearby are also deemed important requirement as per bus commuters expectations. As a part of safety and security requirements, the respondents have expressed their desire for lighting facility and presence of electronic surveillance system at bus stops. Presence of safety and regulatory signs around bus stops, low-height of kerbs for commuters to conveniently access the bus-footboard are some of the other attributes found to be influential aspects for the commuters. Finally, the respondents feel that prohibition of vehicle parking around bus stops needs to be enforced. Choice Set Design for Stated Choice Experimentation As discussed, a set of attributes relating to the pedestrian-access facility

 

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Results and outcome till date

Major outcome with reference to intervention areas for improvement of pedestrian feeder paths The following attributes are identified as major intervention areas for improvement of pedestrian feeder paths used for accessing urban local bus stops. a) Presence of dedicated sidewalk facility b) Adequate width of sidewalk facility c) Presence of street lights on feeder paths d) Frequency of crosswalks on the feeder paths e) Quality of road surface on feeder paths f) Presence of road surveillance system (say CCTV) on feeder paths g) Frequency of city bus service h) In-vehicle journey time by city bus i) Fare for the journey by city bus The study reveals that the above 9 aspects, comprising of characteristics of pedestrian feeder path and city bus service characteristics, need to be addressed, in order to improve the attractiveness of the travel condition of the walk-accessed bus commuters. A comprehensive study has been conducted on alternative types and specification of infrastructural facilities. In this regard, a few innovative and sustainable solutions are being investigated. Some of them are energy harvesting pavement surfacing materials such as Pavegen tiles and solar tiles, in-pavement flashers at crosswalks, pedestrian controlled signals and innovative lighting facilities such as kerb-lighting, rope lighting along sidewalk etc. (as illustrated in Fig.1). Willingness-to-Pay (WTP) study on walk-access infrastructure A comprehensive review of literature and manuals for best practices are consulted in order to identify various types or levels of each of the intervention areas as described previously. Considering these aspects, an experimental design has been carried out using D-optimal design. The design produced alternatives which are presented in generic form, i.e., choice between Alternative A and Alternative B. A few sample choice sets are presented in adjacent Fig.2. Major outcome with reference to identification of important infrastructural improvement needs of an urban local bus stop This task carries out a rational assessment towards identification of infrastructural improvement needs of local bus stops in Bhubaneswar city as per bus passengers requirement and satisfaction. In this regard, the following intervention areas are identified for immediate improvement. a) Seating experience inside of a bus shelter b) Presence of bus stop amenities such as drinking water facility and public kiosk nearby c) Lighting facility at bus stops and on access path to bus stops is found necessary d) Provision for surveillance system at bus stop is also identified as important e) Presence of safety measures and regulatory signs around bus stops f) Information system related to bus operational service In light of assessing the commuters willingness-to-pay (WTP) for improvement in bus stop shelter, a stated choice experiment is designed (a sample choice set is illustrated in Fig.3). The experiment is currently being conducted at various bus stop locations in Bhubaneswar City. Each respondent is provided with a random choice scenario (with 2 alternatives each) from which he/she chooses a preferred walk-access condition. Till date, a total of 390 survey respondents have been interviewed, and the total sample responses are 3120.

 

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Societal benefit and impact anticipated

In this work, the likely impact of alternative infrastructural facility of access-path in association with alternative policy measure for bus service characteristics will be tested on the captive bus users and choice riders. The work will examine this impact in terms of savings in generalised cost on both captive users and choice riders because of increasing attractiveness of access-path in a bus stop catchment.

Next steps

Investigation on Innovative and Sustainable Solutions for Pedestrian Infrastructure As a part of estimating Willingness-to-Pay (WTP) of the above identified attributes, a stated choice experimentation will be carried out. In order to create the definition of attributes and their levels, a comprehensive study is currently underway on innovative alternative types and specification of infrastructural facilities. In this regard, a few innovative but sustainable solutions are being investigated. Some of them include energy harvesting pavement surfacing materials such as Pavegen tiles and solar tiles, in-pavement flashers at crosswalks, pedestrian controlled signals and innovative lighting facilities such as kerb-lighting, rope lighting along sidewalk etc. (as illustrated in picture captioned Examination of alternative infrastructure). Choice Set Design for Stated Choice Experimentation In addition to the above, a D-optimal design is carried out to develop the suitable choice set design for Stated Choice Experimentation. Once the choice set design will be over, a comprehensive field experimentation will be carried out to collect the SP data. After that, the choice data will be used to develop choice model. While developing choice model, heterogeneity study based on excitement parameters as observed during revised-IPA will be tested.

Publications and reports

1. Roy, S., and Basu, D., 2019. An approach towards estimating critical value of waiting time at transit stops. Journal of Traffic and Transportation Engineering, Elsevier pub. (Accepted) 2. Basu, D., Roy, S., Maitra, S.R., and Majumdar, B.B., 2019. An assessment towards identifying improvement needs of urban bus stop infrastructure: Knowledge gained from Bhubaneswar. In Proceedings of the 15th World Conference of Transport Research (WCTR 2019), Mumbai, India 3. Roy, S., and Basu, D., 2019. An evaluation of in-service infrastructural facilities of walk-access feeder paths to urban local bus stops. In Proceedings of the 15th World Conference of Transport Research (WCTR 2019), Mumbai, India 4. Roy, S., Sahoo, U.C., and Basu, D., 2019. Design of alternative forms of walk-access infrastructure in a bus stop catchment. Accepted for the 5th Conference of Transportation Research Group (CTRG) of India 2019, Bhopal, India.) 5. Roy, S. and Basu, D. Selection of intervention areas for improving travel condition of walk-accessed bus users with a focus on their accessibility: Evidence from urban India. (under review)

Scholars and Project Staff

Ph.D Scholar: 01 (In Progress) M.Tech Scholar: 01 Completed and 02 in Progress

Financial Information

  • Total sanction: Rs. 60.06 lakhs

  • Amount received: Rs. 39.72 lakhs

  • Amount utilised for Equipment: Rs. 14.78 lakhs

  • Amount utilised for Manpower: Rs. 0.78 lakhs

  • Amount utilised for Consumables: Rs. 4.97 lakhs

  • Amount utilised for Contingency: Rs. 2.11 lakhs

  • Amount utilised for Travel: Rs. 1.01 lakhs

  • Amount utilised for Other Expenses: 0

  • Amount utilised for Overheads: Rs. 6.62 lakhs

Equipment and facilities

 

1. 04 nos. of high performance computational facility 2. 01 no. of NGENE 1.X Package with Single License 3. 01 no. NLogit 6.0 up-gradation with LIMDEP 10.0 single license package 4. 01 PTV-VISSIM Package with VISWALK add-on for single License 5. 01 no. of TransCAD HERE Data for India Region 6. 01 no. of Video Camera with wide viewing angle 7. 01 no. of a high definition and wide digital display equipment 8. 01 no. digital HD still camera