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Hierarchically Structured Micro-Nano Pore Nanocomposite Membrane made of Ferric-Oxide Decorated-Titania-Activated-Carbon-Flyash in Carbonized Epoxy Resin as Versatile Filters for Water Purifications: Removal of Organic-Dyes-Heavy-Metals-Microbial-Pathogens

Primary Information

Domain

Environmental Science & Climate Change

Project No.

6134

Sanction and Project Initiation

Sanction No: F.NO.3-18/2015-T.S.-I

Sanction Date: 19/12/2016

Project Initiation date: 15/02/2017

Project Duration: 36 months

Partner Ministry/Agency/Industry

Ministry of Textiles

 

Role of partner: Financial Support to develop a membrane for water purification

 

Support from partner:
Financial support: 125 lakhs
Received as on date of 23rd Nov 2018: 37 lakhs

Principal Investigator

PI Image

Prof. Kamal K. Kar
Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur

Co-PIs

CO-PI Image

Prof. Niraj Sinha
Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur

CO-PI Image

Prof. Jaleel Akhtar
Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur

CO-PI Image

Prof. M. Balasubramanian
Indian Institute of Technology, Madras

CO-PI Image

Prof. Indeerdeep Singh
Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee

CO-PI Image

Prof. M. Ravi Sankar
Indian Institute of Technology, Guwahati

CO-PI Image

Prof. Prabhat K. Agnihotri
Indian Institute of Technology, Ropar

CO-PI Image

Dr. Pradip Paik
University of Hyderabad

CO-PI Image

Prof. Pralay Maiti
Indian Institute of Technology (BHU)

CO-PI Image

Prof. Malay K. Das
Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur

CO-PI Image

Prof. Anil Bhowmick
Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur

Host Institute

 

Scope and Objectives

Development of low cost filter for Water Purifications: Removal of Organic-Dyes-Heavy-Metals-Microbial-Pathogens.

Deliverables

Low cost filter

 

Scientific Output

A. Synthesis of Zn, Mn co-doped TiO2 photocatalyst
1. Zn, Mn co-doped TiO2 nanoparticles have been synthesized by sol-gel method and their photocatalytic activity has been evaluated for the removal of methylene blue from water.
2. The enhanced photocatalytic activity of co-doped TiO2 is attributed to the lowering of charge carrier recombination as well as the formation of heterojunction. These results are further affirmed by the PL spectroscopy, which suggests that after 1.0 at. % doping, the charge carriers in (1.5, 2.0 %) Zn, Mn co doped TiO2 start to recombine, which reduce the photocatalytic activity.
3. The effect of different morphologies of Zn, Mn co-doped TiO2 on the photocatalytic activity has been studied. Zn doped TiO2 nanotubes are also synthesized by employing anodization technique.
4. Spherical Zn, Mn co-doped TiO2 is synthesized by one step solvothermal process. ZnNO3.6H2O and Mn (NO3)2.6H2O (0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 at. %) are added in the stirred solution for Zn, Mn co-doping.
5. The rod shaped TiO2 photocatalysts have been prepared by hydrothermal method. For Zn, Mn co-doping the ZnNO3.6H2O and Mn (NO3)2.6H2O (0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 at. %) are mixed with TiO2 powder.
6. Besides co-doped TiO2, single Zn doped highly oriented TiO2 nanotubes have been also prepared. These TiO2 nanotubes have been prepared by simple one-step anodization process.

(B) Fabrication of TiO2 nanocomposites with AC, Fe3O4 and graphene oxide
1.To extent the properties of TiO2 for the efficient removal of inorganic as well as organic impurities, nanocomposites of TiO2 with activated carbon, Fe3O4 and graphene oxides are synthesized. It is used for the simultaneous removal of MB dye and heavy metals impurities such as, Pb, Cr and Hg from the water. It shows a remarkable removal efficiency by eliminating 97 % of pollutant.
2. 2. In continuation, binary and ternary nanocomposites of TiO2 with Fe3O4 and graphene oxide have been prepared. Here, nanocomposites have been prepared by simple wet chemical method. These binary and ternary (rGO-TiO2, rGO-Fe3O4, rGO-Fe3O4-TiO2) nanocomposites have been employed for the removal of MB and As (III) from the wastewater. Further the properties of these binary and ternary nanocomposites have been compared, where it is found that the ternary nanocomposite, rGO-Fe3O4-TiO2, provides the highest degradation and adsorption efficiency.

(C) Multi doped carbon adsorbent derived from chicken feather fiber
1. In quest of a low cost adsorbent, multi doped (N, O) carbon (MCF) is fabricated by chicken feather fiber (CFF), a biomass waste material.
2. MCF is obtained by the heat treatment of CFF at 220 C for 4 h followed by pyrolysis at 400 C including 600 and 800 C.
3. The MCF-6, which is pyrolyzed at 600 C, provides the highest adsorption capacity (168.9 mg/g). The high adsorption capacity is attributed to the various functional group. Correlation between the adsorption capacities of MCFs with their surface functionalities proves that the sp2 carbon is most active site.

 

Results and outcome till date

A. Synthesis of Zn, Mn co-doped TiO2 photocatalyst
1. Zn, Mn co-doped TiO2 nanoparticles have been synthesized by sol-gel method and their photocatalytic activity has been evaluated for the removal of methylene blue from water.
2. The enhanced photocatalytic activity of co-doped TiO2 is attributed to the lowering of charge carrier recombination as well as the formation of heterojunction. These results are further affirmed by the PL spectroscopy, which suggests that after 1.0 at. % doping, the charge carriers in (1.5, 2.0 %) Zn, Mn co doped TiO2 start to recombine, which reduce the photocatalytic activity.
3. The effect of different morphologies of Zn, Mn co-doped TiO2 on the photocatalytic activity has been studied. Zn doped TiO2 nanotubes are also synthesized by employing anodization technique.
4. Spherical Zn, Mn co-doped TiO2 is synthesized by one step solvothermal process. ZnNO3.6H2O and Mn (NO3)2.6H2O (0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 at. %) are added in the stirred solution for Zn, Mn co-doping.
5. The rod shaped TiO2 photocatalysts have been prepared by hydrothermal method. For Zn, Mn co-doping the ZnNO3.6H2O and Mn (NO3)2.6H2O (0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 at. %) are mixed with TiO2 powder.
6. Besides co-doped TiO2, single Zn doped highly oriented TiO2 nanotubes have been also prepared. These TiO2 nanotubes have been prepared by simple one-step anodization process.

(B) Fabrication of TiO2 nanocomposites with AC, Fe3O4 and graphene oxide
1.To extent the properties of TiO2 for the efficient removal of inorganic as well as organic impurities, nanocomposites of TiO2 with activated carbon, Fe3O4 and graphene oxides are synthesized. It is used for the simultaneous removal of MB dye and heavy metals impurities such as, Pb, Cr and Hg from the water. It shows a remarkable removal efficiency by eliminating 97 % of pollutant.
2. 2. In continuation, binary and ternary nanocomposites of TiO2 with Fe3O4 and graphene oxide have been prepared. Here, nanocomposites have been prepared by simple wet chemical method. These binary and ternary (rGO-TiO2, rGO-Fe3O4, rGO-Fe3O4-TiO2) nanocomposites have been employed for the removal of MB and As (III) from the wastewater. Further the properties of these binary and ternary nanocomposites have been compared, where it is found that the ternary nanocomposite, rGO-Fe3O4-TiO2, provides the highest degradation and adsorption efficiency.

(C) Multi doped carbon adsorbent derived from chicken feather fiber
1. In quest of a low cost adsorbent, multi doped (N, O) carbon (MCF) is fabricated by chicken feather fiber (CFF), a biomass waste material.
2. MCF is obtained by the heat treatment of CFF at 220 C for 4 h followed by pyrolysis at 400 C including 600 and 800 C.
3. The MCF-6, which is pyrolyzed at 600 C, provides the highest adsorption capacity (168.9 mg/g). The high adsorption capacity is attributed to the various functional group. Correlation between the adsorption capacities of MCFs with their surface functionalities proves that the sp2 carbon is most active site.

Societal benefit and impact anticipated

Heterogeneous photocatalysis of TiO2 is of significant importance for the removal of environment/ water pollutants. However, due to high band gap TiO2 does not show photocatalytic activity in the visible region. Thus, visible range photocatalytic activity of TiO2 can be improved by incorporating different types of dopant and co-dopant in TiO2 lattice. To further elaborate the properties of TiO2, its composite with carbon based materials have also gained a much interest. These composites can be simultaneously used for the removal of many type of pollutants of water such as heavy metals as well as organic dyes impurities. In addition with these photocatalysts, now a days a lot of emphasis has been also put on the development of cost-efficient alternative sources for the removal of pollutants. In the present thesis, focus has been made on development of metal cation doped, co-doped TiO2 photocatalysts, having different morphologies, and carbon based composites of TiO2 for the efficient removal of water pollutants.

Next steps

Fabrication of few more membranes and its extensive testing for the efficient removal of water pollutants

Publications and reports

1. Title: Arsenic surface complexation behavior in aqueous systems onto Al substituted Ni, Co,Mn, and Cu based ferrite nano adsorbents
Authors: Yaswanth K. Penke, Nidhi Tiwari, Shambunath Jha, Dibyendu Bhattacharyya, Janakarajan Ramkumar, Kamal K.Kar
Reference: Journal of Hazardous Materials, Vol. 361, pp. 383-393, Year: 2019, ISSN: 0304-3894, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2018.07.056, Elsevier B.V.(Impact factor: 6.513)

2. Title: Redox synergistic Mn-Al-Fe, Cu-Al-Fe nano particles for Arsenic Remediation with Environmentally Stable As(0) Formation, Understanding Mechanism Using XPS and Voltammetry tools
Authors: Yaswanth K. Penke, Ganapathi Anantharaman, Janakarajan Ramkumar, Kamal K.Kar
Reference: Journal of Hazardous Materials, Vol. 364, pp. 519-530, Year: 2019, ISSN: 0304-3894, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2018.10.069, , Elsevier B.V.(Impact factor: 6.513)

3.Title: Aluminum substituted cobalt ferrite (Co-Al-Fe) nano adsorbent for arsenic adsorption in aqueous systems and detailed redox behavior study with XPS
Authors: Yaswanth K. Penke, Ganapathi Anantharaman, Janakarajan Ramkumar, and Kamal K. Kar
Reference: Applied Materials and Interfaces, ISSN: 1944-8244, Vol.: 9, No-13, pp.: 11587-11598, Year: 2017, DOI: 10.1021/acsami.6b16414, ACS Publications, USA (Impact factor: 8.097)

4. Title: Graphene oxide (rGO)-metal oxide (TiO2/Fe3O4) based nanocomposites for the removal of methylene blue
Authors: Soma Banerjee, P. Benjwal, Milan Singh, and Kamal K. Kar
Reference: Applied Surface Science, ISSN: 0169-4332 (print), ISSN: 1941-0085 (online), Vol.: 439, pp.: 560-568, Year: 2018, DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apsusc.2018.01.085, Elsevier (Impact factor: 4.4)

5. Title: 1-D and 2-D morphology of metal cation co-doped (Zn, Mn) TiO2 and investigation of their photocatalytic activity
Authors: Poonam Benjwala, Bibekananda Deb, and Kamal K. Kar
Reference: Applied Surface Science, ISSN: 0169-4332 (print), ISSN: 1941-0085 (online), Vol.: 427, Part B, pp.: 262-272, Year: 2018, DOI: 10.1016/j.apsusc.2017.08.226, Elsevier (Impact factor: 4.4)

Patents

Title: Mn-Al-Fe Impregnated RGO Hybrid for Arsenic Remediation with Redox and Photo-catalytic Synergism: Sludge as Possible Super-capacitor
Inventors:Kamal Krishna Kar, Janakarajan Ramkumar, Yaswanth Kumar Penke, Amit Kumar Yadav, Iram Malik, Alekha Tyagi

Scholars and Project Staff

 

Challenges faced

Integration of membrane
insufficient fund. Approved fund: 250 lakhs. Received as on date 107.5 lakhs. There is over expenditure

Other information

 

Financial Information

  • Total sanction: Rs. 250.00 lakhs

  • Amount received: Rs. 107.50 lakhs

  • Amount utilised for Equipment: 30.00 lakhs

  • Amount utilised for Manpower: Rs. 18.47 lakhs

  • Amount utilised for Consumables: 17.87 lakhs

  • Amount utilised for Contingency: 7.49 lakhs

  • Amount utilised for Travel: Rs. 13.40 lakhs

  • Amount utilised for Other Expenses: Rs. 15.59 lakhs

  • Amount utilised for Overheads: 12.00 lakhs

Equipment and facilities

 

Hall mobility