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Solar Energy Assisted Multi-effect Distillation System to Produce Drinking Water in India from Contaminated Water

Primary Information

Domain

Sustainable Habitat

Project No.

6125

Sanction and Project Initiation

Sanction No: F.No. 41-2/2015-T.S.I(pt.)

Sanction Date: 10/02/2017

Project Initiation date: 13/02/2017

Project Duration: 36

Partner Ministry/Agency/Industry

Ministry of Urban Development Industry Partner: M/S Sushil Electronics Services Saharanpur-247001, Up, India

 

Role of partner:PI is very much tankful to provide 50% funding by partner Ministry of Urban Development. Ministry has given thoughtful comments to guide to obtain best deliverable from this projects. Industry Partner: Fabricated the MED system based on our supplied designed parameters.

 

Support from partner:Industry partner: Agreed to provide free maintenance of the system for 5 years for fabricated setup.

Principal Investigator

PI Image

ABHIJIT MAITIPrimary
IIT ROORKEE

Host Institute

Scope and Objectives

Objectives: (1) To develop a water treatment system that can purify high TDS contaminated ground or surface water and arsenic, fluoride contaminated water without any pre-treatment using renewable energy source like solar energy available in India. (2) To obtain treated water 1.5-2.0 m3 per day basis using solar energy assisted multi-effect distillation (MED) unit. (3) Socio-economic analysis and discrimination of the proposed treatment system would be investigated. Scopes Using the solar energy directly to produce steam needs large investment and space required for this is also large. Due to these two constraints solar energy is first converted into electrical energy using Solar PV Power-grid interactive system. Then, electrical energy is used to produce steam using a boiler with a capacity to produce steam 50 kg/hour. Then, steam is used in the multi-effect distillation system to produce 200 L potable water per hour from contaminated water using 50 kg steam.

Deliverables

A laboratory scale multi effect distillation unit developed to get highest thermal efficiency. It is also called as MED system. A pilot scale solar PV 15 kW grid interactive system coupled with MED system installed and capable to produce 1.5 m3 per day potable water. The pilot scale MED operation is expected to run at least 25 to 30 years, with minimum maintenance works. The scale up factor in the thermal desalination design would be revealed, which will help to further scale up of the proposed pilot system. The cost comparison data will provide with other widely used processes. One PhD student as JRF involves in this project and 3 bachelor students have been trained through this project.

 

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Videos

Would be uploaded when deliverable in full function.

Scientific Output

Scientific output The solar energy is converted into first electrical energy and then used to convert into steam is found to be more feasible for this project. A solar PV 15 kW power- grid interactive system has been installed to generate electricity. The steam once produced from boiler used in the first effect of multi-effect distillation system as heating medium to produce purified water from contaminated water. Vapour from 1st effect goes to 2nd effect to provide energy input into 2nd effect and steam produce from 1st effect condensates in the 2nd effect and obtains as potable water. The similar phenomena occurs up to 5th effect in this project and potable water obtained from each five effects by proving energy source only once through boiler situated before the 1st effect. The design of the proposed MED system is performed and following design parameters evaluated through this design using MATLAB programming and standard design method of Calandria type heat exchanger. Calandria type Evaporator system designed parameters are included as figure 5. The 5 effect MED system installed and potable water is obtaining from first four effects as per expected from design. To obtain the condensate, we need to install vapor compressor.

 

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Results and outcome till date

The solar energy is converted into first electrical energy and then used to convert into steam is found to be more feasible for this project. A solar PV 15 kW power grid interactive system has been installed to generate electricity. The steam once produced from boiler used in the first effect of multi effect distillation system as heating medium to produce purified water from contaminated water. Vapour from 1st effect goes to 2nd effect to provide energy input into 2nd effect and steam produce from 1st effect condensates in the 2nd effect and obtains as potable water. The similar phenomena occurs up to 5th effect in this project and potable water obtained from each five effects by proving energy source only once through boiler situated before the 1st effect. The design of the proposed MED system is performed and following design parameters evaluated through this design using MATLAB programming and standard design method of Calandria type heat exchanger. Calandria type Evaporator system designed parameters are included as figure 5. The 5 effect MED system installed and potable water is obtaining from first four effects as per expected from design. The feasibility of the installation of condenser with this MED pilot plant has been designed and fabricated in last few months. The study reveals that vapour compressor addition with this system will not be feasible. Because, commercially available vapour compressor is only capable to compress the vapur, if the vapour temperature lies higher than 85 degree Celsius. Whereas, steam economy of the present pilot scale with vapour compressor will reduce to 1.77 from current expected value of 4. Thus, instead of vapor compressor, the increase of solar PV cell capacity would be more feasible approach to increase the energy efficiency of the system. The Figure 6 attached here is showing the effect of the temperature of the last effect on steam economy. The calculation in the Figure 6 is performed based on following data Feed water rate= 300 kg per h; Initial feed temperature: 30 oC; Motive steam temperature= 100 oC; TDS= 1000 to1500 mg per L Parallel Feeding mode Heating area = 3.3 Sq.m (Highest area required corresponding to initial feed temperature of 10 oC)

 

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Societal benefit and impact anticipated

This pilot scale MED setup is installed in a UP government organization of ITI Saharanpur, where Institute has problem with high TDS groundwater. This system will produce approximate 1500 L potable water and that would be available as drinking water for students, staff and nearby local peoples. The design of 2-effect calandria type system is available in market, which has only steam economy 1.4 instead of 3.8 for our system of 5-effect MED. Which is not available in the market as fabricated in this project. The design of scale up the system is proposed, which could be beneficial for future use of this system.

Next steps

To complete the run of 5-effect MED system. Installation is completed with minor modification left such as complete insulation, water level controller inside of downcomer to increase efficiency of calandria evaporator, to installed control system for vacuum pump (pump will automatically stop when require vacuum reach. Procure the vapour compressor to reuse the vapour produced from last effect to increase overall energy efficiency of the system. Comparison of the cost of production with other process would compared.

Publications and reports

Peer review publication The peer review publication directly related to the project for scale of project is under preparation. Patent is to be applied, once the system will run successfully with condenser. As the MED is concentrating the contaminated water, the concentrated products need to address through various novel technology. My research group is actively involved to find such novel technology to treat such concentrated wastes. Following pear reviewed publication is received in this area of research. International Journal papers 1. S. Mishra, P. Mohanty, and A. Maiti, Bacterial mediated biodecolourization of wastewater containing mixed reactive dyes using Jack fruit seed as cosubstrate Process optimization, J. Cleaner Production, 235, 2019, 21 to 33. 2. M. Chaudhary, S. Rawat, N. Jain, A. Bhatnagar, A. Maiti, Chitosan Fe Al Mn metal oxyhydroxides composite as highly efficient fluoride scavenger for aqueous medium, Polymer Carbohydrates, 216, 2019 140 to 148. 3. S. Mishra, and A. Maiti, Process optimization for effective biodecolourization of reactive orange 16 using chemometric methods, J. Environmental Science and Heath Part A, 64, 2019, 179 to 192. 4. S. Mishra, and A. Maiti, Process optimization for effective biodecolourization of methyl orange by Pseudomonas aeruginosa 23N1 using chemometric methodology, The Canadian Journal of Chemical Engineering, 97S1, 2019,1340 to 1351. 5. S. Mishra and A. Maiti, Optimization of process parameters to enhance the biodecolourization of Reactive Red 21 by Pseudomonas aeruginosa 23N1, International journal of Environmental Science and Technology, online, 6. M. Chaudhary, A. Maiti, Defluoridation by highly efficient calcium hydroxide nanorods from synthetic and industrial wastewater, Colloids and Surfaces A Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects 561, 2018, 79 to 88.

Patents

A patent applied: By Abhijit Maiti and Nishant Jain, (2018), An Improved Ferromanganese Slag to Oxidize Arsenite and Removal of Arsenic From Water. Applied for Indian patent.

Scholars and Project Staff

Mr. Vinod Kumar Jaiswar as JRF from May-2017 with tenure of 1 year and renewal after one year based on satisfactory performance upto 3 years. Recently Mr. Vinod left the JRF post. Dr. saurabh Mishra has joined as a JRF in this project since July, 2019.

Challenges faced

As described early pre-designed 2-effect MED system is only available commercially. We had faced problem to find the suitable fabricated farm through open tender to fabricate the designed 5-effcet MED system. The fabrication is completed by local vendor; the local vendor has gained new knowledge that influenced them to take such new fabrication job. So, they can get more such fabrication jobs in near future. Once the installation is completed, we need to install the vapor compressor, that would be use to convert waste vapour form 5th effect to usable steam of same quality as producing from 1st effect. The addition of vapour compressor will improve the overall energy efficiency of the final deliverable system.

Other information

The budget balance is now running negative in last few months. To execute the project smothethly, PI needs the remaning unreleased fund immediately. We need the unreleased fund of this project for condensate collection system for the effects of MED system along with other finishing parts of the deliverable for full functioning of its.

Financial Information

  • Total sanction: Rs. 6302000

  • Amount received: Rs. 5103000

  • Amount utilised for Equipment: Rs. 2982675

  • Amount utilised for Manpower: Rs. 741935

  • Amount utilised for Consumables: Rs. 280000

  • Amount utilised for Contingency: Rs. 250990

  • Amount utilised for Travel: Rs. 70900

  • Amount utilised for Other Expenses: 0

  • Amount utilised for Overheads: Rs. 850600

Equipment and facilities

 

Other than water bath and PV-cell Grid interactive system all equipment used in project have been fabricated. because no such equipment is available commercially as per requirement.